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Arkansas Rice Update 9-20-13

September 20, 2013                    No. 2013-26

Dr. Jarrod Hardke and Dr. Yeshi Wamishe

Crop Progress

This will be the final weekly rice update of the year.  Additional updates may be published if the need arises.

Rainfall across the state today will mark the first slowdown of rice harvest this year.  The stage of harvest is variable across the state with some growers beginning to wrap up rice harvest while some have not yet begun.  Most are somewhere in between.  At this point the state is probably 35-40% through rice harvest.  The southern half of the state is perhaps more like 70% complete compared to 25% in the northern half of the state.  That sounds about right considering how different the season has been for those north and south of I-40.

Yield reports have continued to be very positive in the last week.  However, there does seem to be evidence of yields beginning to taper off a little.  This shouldn’t be unexpected as we move to harvesting later-planted rice.

We seem to be hitting that mid-September cool down right now.  Rain should move out of the state today and leave us with high temperatures in the mid to low 80s all of next week.  More rain chances are supposed to show up next weekend.  Late rice still needing to make some progress will likely begin to do so much slower now.

With more rainfall in the near future, remember to be careful applying harvest aids to your rice.  If you begin drying the crop down and then can’t harvest it timely, you could hurt both yield (shattering) and quality (rewetting of dry grain).  Also, if you’re vegetation is mostly shut down, you may not have a lot of luck getting grain moisture to fall off as expected after applying a harvest aid.

Still more reports of rice breaking over and lodging for no readily apparent reason – this goes for all cultivars.  Some possible causes may be high nitrogen rates, high sides of levees where plants have become very dry and brittle, and sheath blight weakening plants.

Table 1.  Percent of rice acres to reach 20% grain moisture during listed weeks of 2013 according to current DD50 enrollment.

Harvest Date

Percent

20%   moisture

98%

Sept   21-27

0%

Sept   28 – Oct 4

2%

Revised FSA Rice Acreage Report Released September 17

Table 2 shows a summary of the rice acreage information released in the revised report.  Rice acres are listed by county – long-grain, medium-grain, and total county acreage.

Total rice acreage for the state is reported at 1,050,530 (up from 971,631 in the August report).  Of that 1.05 million acres, 936,450 (89%) is long-grain and 114,080 (11%) is medium-grain.

This brings rice acreage numbers more in line with previous USDA estimates (March: 1.226 million acres; August: 1.055 million acres).  1.05 million acres is the fewest planted rice acres in Arkansas since 1987 (1.01 million acres).  Monthly FSA acreage updates will be released for the remainder of the year with final numbers released in January.

Table 2.  2013 FSA rice acres.

County

Long

Med.

Total

ARKANSAS

66,082

5,461

71,544

ASHLEY

4,533

0

4,533

CHICOT

25,107

0

25,107

CLAY

58,734

6,006

64,740

CONWAY

1,704

0

1,704

CRAIGHEAD

51,446

6,541

57,987

CRITTNDEN

18,209

3,383

21,593

CROSS

60,643

4,673

65,315

DESHA

9,375

229

9,604

DREW

7,116

0

7,116

FAULKNER

1,815

0

1,815

GREENE

59,687

3,052

62,739

INDEPNDCE

7,562

201

7,764

JACKSON

50,758

17,788

68,546

JEFFERSON

54,741

697

55,438

LAFAYETTE

3,164

0

3,164

LAWRENCE

72,029

11,707

83,736

LEE

15,345

224

15,568

LINCOLN

11,911

193

12,104

LONOKE

65,278

2,597

67,875

MISSISSIP

25,154

295

25,449

MONROE

35,170

2,029

37,199

PHILLIPS

17,946

231

18,177

POINSETT

52,793

33,407

86,200

PRAIRIE

48,100

5,343

53,443

PULASKI

3,371

0

3,371

RANDOLPH

23,674

5,386

29,060

SAINT FRA

24,187

2,290

26,477

WHITE

8,950

896

9,847

WOODRUFF

45,979

1,410

47,389

OTHERS

5,887

40

5,927

TOTAL

936,450

114,080

1,050,530

Disease Update

As the rice season is tapering off and harvesting picks up, we still see some late-season rice diseases in late rice.  Disease pressure is typically higher in experimental fields due to a lack of fungicide use.

Bacterial panicle blight (BPB) was observed in a small area in a producer fields planted with CL111 in Arkansas County.  The affected area yielded 20% less than the healthier part of the field (Picture 1-left).  Jazzman-2 has been observed with some level of bacterial panicle blight (Picture 1-right) in field plots where other varieties were clean – indicating the inoculum possibly came from the seed.  Bacterial panicle blight is seed-borne and soil/residue-borne.

Picture 1.  BPB affected field of CL111 with upright panicles (left); and BPB on Jazzman-2 panicles (right).

2013-26 Picture 1

False smut has been the prominent disease both in experimental plots and in commercials, particularly in northern Arkansas (Picture 2).  High rate of nitrogen fertilizer encourages this disease; and fungicide timing and rate are important to obtain some level of suppression.  False smut is less sensitive to the available protective fungicides than kernel smut.  The fungicides with the correct rate and timing could only suppress false smut up to 75 percent.

Picture 2.  False smut in maturing rice.2013-26 Picture 2

Sheath blight is still being seen in susceptible late-planted cultivars.  However, the crop appears to outrun the pathogen.  Other sheath spots (Picture 3) were also seen together with sheath blight in experimental fields at RREC, Stuttgart.

Picture 3.  Sheath spots like those seen here can be caused by different species of fungi and are easily confused with sheath blight.2013-26 Picture 3

Neck blast has been reported in a few counties.  However, there is no alarming news about it.  Neck blast in severe situations may cause 100 percent grain yield loss for it can totally blank panicles (Picture 4).

Picture 4.  Neck blast rots the neck and prevents panicles from filling.  Panicles also lose support of the neck and break off easily.2013-26 Picture 4

Kernel smut was observed at different levels in Roy J, Taggart, Antonio, Mermentau, Cheniere, Jazzman-2, Jupiter, RT XL753, RT XL723, and AREX1081 in PREP (Producer Rice Evaluation Program) trials at Conway County (Picture 5).  Kernel smut affects both yield and quality.  Kernel smut is clearly seen in the mornings when the spores get moist and force the kernel to open (Picture 5-right).

Picture 5.  Kernel smut in fungicide unprotected rice (left); and kernel smut spores pushing out of the kernel (right).2013-26 Picture 5

Common contaminants:  Rain and dew on matured rice may encourage the growth of opportunistic microorganisms as shown in Picture 6.

Picture 6.  Growth of opportunistic microorganisms on rice.2013-26 Picture 6

 

Need Help with DD50 Enrollment?  Call or E-mail Me or Your Local County Extension Agent

If you prefer to enter them yourself, please visit http://dd50.uaex.edu/dd50Logon.asp.

Additional Information

Arkansas Rice Updates are published periodically to provide timely information and recommendations for rice production in Arkansas.  If you would like to be added to this email list, please send your request to jhardke@uaex.edu.

This information will also be posted to the Arkansas Row Crops where additional information from Extension specialists can be found.  Please visit the blog at http://www.arkansas-crops.com/

Acknowledgements

We sincerely appreciate the support provided by the Arkansas Rice Research and Promotion Board for this publication.

The authors greatly appreciate the feedback and contributions of all growers, county agents, consultants, and rice industry stakeholders.


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