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06
Sep
2013
Arkansas Rice Update 9-6-13
Author: Jarrod Hardke, Rice Extension Agronomist

September 6, 2013                      No. 2013-24

Dr. Jarrod Hardke, Dr. Gus Lorenz, and Dr. Yeshi Wamishe

Crop Progress

Seeing trucks stacking up at the mill is an easy giveaway that harvest is picking up steam.  It’s becoming common that I hear people with high test weights (45-47 lbs/bu).  Trucks get heavy really fast with test weights that high, so be careful loading trucks.  Still very good yield reports coming in as well.  Some recent reports coming in from the southern & central parts of the state have been in the 230-240 bu/acre and even 270-280 bu/acre (all weights were 18-20% moisture).  While you’re more likely to hear about the good than the bad, these are still promising numbers.  Let’s see if folks can keep it up as we begin to harvest rice planted a little later.

While we were only estimated to have harvested about 5% of the crop as of Monday, the next 10-14 days will see a lot of rice taken out of the field.  Last week’s warm temperatures and high humidity prevented grain moistures from falling off at the rate most expected, but this week a little lower humidity has been the ticket to start drying on down.

“But what about the rice that’s not quite ready for harvest?”  We need to hope we sustain the daily temperatures necessary to finish off the crop.  Table 1 compares the temperatures on Sept. 1 vs. Sept. 30 for the last 12 years.  On average, we go from a Sept. 1 high of 88 to a Sept. 30 high of 80.  All the years are shown because that average can be misleading.  Really, a nice figure showing the trend over the whole month would better reflect what really happens – some of those highs for Sept. 30 (like that 93 in 2011) had temps in the low 80s and upper 70s in the days before and after.

DD50 numbers indicate that 85% of the crop is ready for harvest (Table 2).  Maybe that’s not too far off these days.  Some fields are just now in the first two weeks of heading and will fall into that late September/early October harvest window.  Right now, the long-term weather forecast looks great for crop progress – both in terms of yield and grain quality.

Table 1.  High/low temperatures for Sept. 1 and Sept 30, 2001-2012.

Year

Sept. 1

Sept. 30

High

Low

High

Low

2012

87

74

77

62

2011

95

70

93

56

2010

90

73

82

54

2009

79

55

76

48

2008

93

72

83

53

2007

90

64

88

58

2006

84

63

75

44

2005

92

67

70

47

2004

85

62

79

49

2003

94

72

71

41

2002

92

67

86

65

2001

80

69

77

49

AVG

88

67

80

52

Table 2.  Percent of rice acres to reach 20% grain moisture during listed weeks of 2013 according to current DD50 enrollment.

Harvest Date

Percent

20%   moisture

85%

Sept   7-13

9%

Sept   14-20

4%

Sept   21-27

0%

Sept   28 – Oct 4

2%

Draining Guidelines:

Long-grain – 25 days after 50% heading.

Medium-grain – 30 days after 50% heading.

Picture 1.  Harvest efficiency.2013-24 Picture 1

Out Standing in Your Rice Field

Harvest Aids

There have been several questions about “salting” fields to get them to dry down faster for harvest.  Most people have been in the situation where the weather conditions have bunched a lot of their acreage at the same relative moisture.  In this situation, sodium chlorate can be a useful tool.  The recommended rates of use are 3 to 6 lbs a.i. per acre.  It is best to wait until rice is below 25% moisture before making an application (do not apply below 18% moisture).  Expect grain moisture to fall up to 5% in just a few days.  Applying sodium chlorate to rice below 25% moisture and harvesting in 4 to 7 days will not result in a reduction in grain yield or milling yield.

Your decision of when or if you are going to apply a harvest aid like sodium chlorate should depend on the weather forecast and how fast you can harvest.  Look at the long-term weather forecast and see if you will be able to apply the harvest aid and then get the crop harvested 4 to 7 days after application.

If weather forces you out of the field and prevents you from completing harvest in a timely manner, you may not like the results.  The grain moisture will continue to drop at a rapid rate.  Rice allowed to reach extremely low moisture in the field could result in reduced milling yields and increased shattering.

Make the right decision and you’ll be kicking harvest into gear, but make the wrong decision and you’ll just be kicking yourself.

Rice Stink Bug

They’re still out there.  And there are still fields that need to be worried about them.  Some are in the final two weeks of heading, but some are just getting there.

Picture 1 was taken one afternoon this week – harvesting away.  Picture 2 was taken the following morning on a field that had just headed – spraying for rice stink bugs.  They’re about 10 miles apart.

There’s still plenty of rice out there that needs protection from rice stink bug.

Threshold reminder:  5 per 10 sweeps the first two weeks of heading; 10 per 10 sweeps the second two weeks of heading.

Picture 2.  Timing is key.2013-24 Picture 2

Disease Notes

We have not heard much about rice diseases this week.  In our experimental field rating at Pine Tree, we have seen low levels of bacterial panicle blight and some false smut.  Most of the news this week is about “draining, drying, and cutting”.  If rice is ready to be taken out of the field, it is better to take it out on time.  Rain on matured rice would encourage common opportunistic fungi and bacteria to infect kernels and quality could be an issue.  The discoloration that may be caused by delayed harvest, especially after rain, may also result in “pecky” rice.  Such a quality loss would be more pronounced when the rice is parboiled.

Last year, some rice producers have experienced sooty molds due to the rain at the end of August from Tropical Storm Isaac (Picture 3).  Sooty molds could serve as an indicator that a high nitrogen rate was applied.  Some opportunistic, late-season microorganisms may also damage rice grain in storage.

Picture 3.  A matured rice field affected largely by sooty mold.2013-24 Picture 3

 

Need Help with DD50 Enrollment?  Call or E-mail Me or Your Local County Extension Agent

If you prefer to enter them yourself, please visit http://dd50.uaex.edu/dd50Logon.asp.

Additional Information

Arkansas Rice Updates are published periodically to provide timely information and recommendations for rice production in Arkansas.  If you would like to be added to this email list, please send your request to jhardke@uaex.edu.

This information will also be posted to the Arkansas Row Crops where additional information from Extension specialists can be found.  Please visit the blog at http://www.arkansas-crops.com/

Acknowledgements

We sincerely appreciate the support provided by the Arkansas Rice Research and Promotion Board for this publication.

The authors greatly appreciate the feedback and contributions of all growers, county agents, consultants, and rice industry stakeholders.


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